1.1 - Goodwill

Goodwill is the sum of future benefits not separately identifiable in a business combination. At the date of acquisition , the goodwill is equal to the excess between the sum of the consideration transferred, including contingent consideration, liabilities assumed towards the previous owners the fair value of non-controlling interests as well as, in a business combination achieved in stages, the fair value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree and the value of the separately identifiable net assets and liabilities acquired.

After initial recognition, goodwill is measured at cost less any impairment losses and it is no longer amortised. According to IAS 36, goodwill is not subject to amortization. Realized gains and losses on investments in subsidiaries include the related goodwill. Goodwill is tested at least annually in order to identify any impairment losses.

The purpose of the impairment test on goodwill is to identify the existence of any impairment losses on the carrying amount recognised as intangible asset. In this context, cash-generating units to which the goodwill is allocated are identified and tested for impairment. Cash-generating units (CGU) units usually represent the consolidated units within the same primary segment in each country. Any impairment is equal to the difference, if negative, between the carrying amount and the recoverable amount, which is the higher between the fair value of the cash-generating unit and its value in use, i.e. the present value of the future cash flows expected to be derived from the cash-generating units. The fair value of the CGU is determined on the basis of current market quotation or usually adopted valuation techniques (mainly DDM or alternatively embedded value or appraisal value based on EBS). The Dividend Discount Model is a variant of the Cash flow method. In particular the Dividend Discount Model, in the excess capital methodology, states that the economic value of an entity is equal to the discounted dividends flow calculated considering the minimum capital requirements. Such models are based on projections on budgets/forecasts approved by management or conservative or prudential assumptions covering a maximum period of five years. Cash flow projections for a period longer than five years are extrapolated using estimated among others growth rates. The discount rates reflect the free risk rate, adjusted to take into account specific risks.

Should any previous impairment losses no longer exist, they cannot be reversed.

For further details see paragraph 1.1 – Goodwill in the section Notes to the balance sheet.